The Rape Of Nanking
The Nanjing massacre was perhaps the best remembered and
most infamous event in the Japanese invasion of China. It continues to stir Chinese passions to this day. Following the Mukden Incident in 1931, Japan began its invasion of Manchuria. Because the Communists and the Kuomintang (KMT) were engaged in the Chinese Civil War they were distracted from the reality of Japanese advances.
However, in 1937, following the Xi'an Incident, the Chinese communists and nationalists agreed to form a united
front. The KMT then formally started an all-out defense against the Japanese threat. However, the Chinese army was poorly
trained and equipped: some regiments were armed primarily with swords and hand grenades and few had anti-tank weaponry. Despite
their difficulties, it is likely that China fielded the largest army in the world at the time in terms of troop numbers. Following
the battle at Marco Polo Bridge, which formally started the Sino-Japanese War, the Japanese
were swift in capturing major Chinese cities in the northeast.
In August of 1937, the Japanese army faced strong resistance
and suffered heavy casualties in the Battle of Shanghai, effectively destroying the possibility of realizing the Japanese
proclamation of "三月亡華," or "Conquering China in Three Months." (or in original Japanese "三日下上海,三月亡支那"
or "Conquering Shanghai in Three Days, Conquering China in Three Months") The battle in Shanghai was bloody as both sides
faced attrition in urban hand-to-hand combat. Many historians today believe that the traumatic situation in Shanghai nurtured
some of the psychological conditions for Japanese soldiers to march on Nanjing later on. By mid-November the Japanese had
captured the city with help of naval bombardment. The General Staff Headquarters in Tokyo decided not to expand the war due
to heavy casualties incurred and the low morale of the troops. However, on December 1, headquarters ordered the Central China
Area Army and the 10th Army to capture Nanjing, then the capital of the Republic of China. The Japanese army contained many
army reserves who had families back home and expected to return home once the campaign in Shanghai was over.
After losing the Battle of Shanghai, Chiang Kai-shek knew
the fall of Nanjing would be simply a matter of time. Leaving Gen. Tang Shengzhi in charge of the city, Chiang many of his advisors flew to
Chongqing, China's wartime capital for the next seven years. Although
walls of defence were constructed, they were never effectively used. In the absence of an organized retreat, the situation
before the Japanese entered Nanjing was chaotic. On December 13, the Japanese entered a city virtually free of any military
The site of some of the most gruesome atrocities committed
during the ordeal was the Nanking hospital. Bandages were torn from the flesh of the wounded, casts were smashed with clubs,
and nurses were repeatedly raped.
Witness accounts from the period state that over the course
of six weeks following the fall of Nanking, Japanese troops engaged in an orgy of rape, murder, theft, and arson. Historians
estimate that up to 80,000 women from as young as 7 to the elderly were raped. Rapes were often performed in public during
the day and often in front of spouses or family members. The rape was systemized in a process where soldiers would search
door to door for young girls. Many women were taken captive to be gang raped and some were kept to be raped again. It was
common for a woman to be killed immediately after being raped usually by mutilation. Some women were forced into military
prostitution as comfort women. Japanese troops often forced families to commit acts of incest;
sons were forced to rape their mothers, fathers were forced to rape daughters. Monks who had declared a life of celibacy were
forced to rape women at the amusement of the Japanese. While the rape peaked immediately following the fall of the city, it
nevertheless continured during the duration of the Japanese occupation.
Immediately following the fall of the city, Japanese troops
searched for former soldiers. During their search, they captured thousands of young men most of whom were civilians. Many
were taken to the Yangtze River where they were machine gunned so their bodies would flow down
to Shanghai. Others were used for live bayonet practice. Decapitation was
a popular method of killing for the Japanese troops. Reports of soldiers being over exhausted from decapitating prisoners
were common. Some Chinese were burned, nailed to trees, or had their breasts cut off. Witnesses recall Japanese soldiers throwing
babies into the air and catching them with their bayonets. Pregnant women were often the target of murder as they would often
be bayoneted in the belly.
Theft and arson
As much as two thirds of the city was destroyed as a result
of arson. Japanese troops torched newly built government buildings as well as the homes of many civilians. There was considerable
destruction to farms outside the city walls. Soldiers pillaged from not only the wealthy but the poor as well. General Iwane Matsui was given an art collection worth $2.000.000,00 that was stolen
from a Shanghai banker. To aid the Japanese war effort, soldiers collected every bit of metal including hinges on doors following
the United States embargo on junk metal.
Death toll estimates
There is some debate as to the extent of the war atrocities
in Nanjing, especially estimations of the death toll.
The issues involved in calculating the number of dead lie
in defining the geographical range and time period of killing as well as the question of what "type" of killing is to be included
in the definition of the term "massacre". On one side is the view that the geographical area of the incident should be limited
to the few square kilometers of the city known as the Safety Zone. Another view to define "Nanjing" as the old walled city
of Nanjing. Some historians include a much larger area around the city. The Xianquan area is the suburbs of Nanjing city (which
is about 66 miles). Because the entire Jiangsu province fell under the administration of Nanjing, some historians
also include six xian (counties) around Nanjing starting from Suzhou, at the western edge of Jiangsu province.
The period of the massacre, hence, is naturally defined
by the geography of the masssacre. The Battle of Nanjing ended on December 13, when the divisions of the Japanese Army
entered the walled city of Nanjing. The Tokyo War Crime Tribunal then defined the period of the massacre to the ensuing 6
weeks. Conservative estimates say the massacre started from December 14th, when the troops entered the Safety Zone, and that
it lasted for 6 weeks. Those who define the Nanjing massacre as having started from the time the Japanese army entered Jiangsu province push the beginning of the massacre to around mid-November
to early December (Suzhou fell on November 19), and strech the end of the massacre to late March 1938.
Another point of debate is the question of whom to count
as the victims of Japanese atrocities. Historians agree that the Japanese army indiscriminately killed many civilians in Nanking
city, and that these should be counted in the death toll of the massacre. Over the course of the campaign through China, the
Japanese army did not take prisoners of war and summarily executed Chinese soldiers during or after combat. Moreover, the
army executed plain-clothed guerilla combatants who were hiding among civilians. It is unclear how many innocent civilians
were wrongly accused of being guerilla combatants and were dispatched in this manner.
To make matters more difficult, archival evidence such
as burial records only state the body count and not which type of group to which each body belonged. Therefore, it provides
no means to distinguish whether bodies were the result of "legitimate" or "illegitimate" killing. Many different categories
of varying legitimacy exist: soldiers killed during combat, surrendered soldiers summarily executed after the battle, plain-clothed
guerilla combatants, plain-clothed soldiers hiding among civilians, civilians wrongly suspected of being guerrila combatants,
or those bystanders attacked during the period of indiscriminate killing, rape and looting (which all the scholars deem to
In the International Military Tribunal for the Far East or
the Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal, death toll is given to range between 200,000 and 300,000. The death toll reckoned at the
Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal, is the official estimate engraved on the stone wall at the entrance of the "Memorial Hall for
Compatriot Victims of the Japanese Military's Nanjing Massacre".
In 1947 at the Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal, the verdict of
Lieutenant General Tani Hisao, the commander of the 6th Division, quoted the figure of more than 300,000 death tolls. Apparently
the estimation was made from burial records and eyewitness accounts. It concluded that some 190,000 were illegally executed
at various execution sites and 150,000 were individually massacred. The International Military Tribunal for the Far East estimated
in its judgment that "over 200,000" or "over 100,000" civilians and prisoners of war were murdered during the first six weeks of the Japanese occupation.
That number was based on burial records submitted by two charitable organizations, the Red Swastika Society and the Chung
Shan Tang (Tsung Shan Tong), the research done by Smythe and some estimates given by survivors.
At the Tokyo Tribunal of War Criminals, the Nanjing Massacre
death toll was presented either as "more than 200,000" or "more than "100,000". In Japan, there are four opinions about Nanjing
Massacre. The extent of Japanese atrocities did shock the world as well as Japanese public of the time but soon became a marginal
China and Japan have acknowledged the existence of war atrocities.
However, disputes over the historical portrayal of events has been the root of continuing political tensions between the China and Japan.
Widespread atrocities committed by Japanese in Nanking were
first reported to the world by the Westerners residing in Nanjing city's Safety Zone. For instance, on January 11, 1938, a correspondent for the Manchester Guardian, Harold
Timperley, apparently tried to cable a similar estimate but was censored by the Japanese authorities in Shanghai because his
report said that "not less than 300,000 Chinese civilians" were slaughtered in cold blood in "Nanjing and elsewhere." His
message was relayed from Shanghai to Tokyo to be sent out to the Japanese Embassies in Europe and the United States. Also,
dramatic reports by American journalists of Japanese brutality against Chinese civilians, in addition to the Panay incident which also occurred after the occupation of Nanjing, helped
turn American public opinion against Japan and, in part, led to a series of events which culminated in the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
Interest in the Nanjing Massacre did not begin until 1972,
the year China and Japan normalized their relationship. In China, to foster the newly found friendship to Japan, the Communist
Government under Mao Zedong ostensibly suppressed the mention of the Nanking Massacre from
public discourse and media, which the Communist Party directly controlled. Therefore, the entire debate on Nanking massacre
during 1970 took place in Japan. In commemoration of the normalization, one Japanese major newspaper, Asahi Shimbun, ran serialized articles titled "Chugoku no Tabi" ("Travel to China"), written by journalist Katuichi Honda, which detailed
the atrocities of the Japanese Army within China, including the Nanjing Massacre. In the series, Honda mentioned an episode
in which two officers competed to slay 100 Chinese with their swords. The truth of this incident is hotly disputed and critics
seized on the opportunity to imply that the episode, as well as the Nanjing Massacre and all its accompanying articles, were
largely falsified. This is regarded as the start of the Nanjing Massacre controversy in Japan. The debate concerning the occurrence
of killings and rapes took place mainly in the 1970s, during which Chinese official statements about the event came under
attack because they relied heavily on personal testimonies and anecdotal evidence. Also coming under attack were the burial
records presented in the Tokyo War Crime Court, which were said to be fabrications by the Chinese side of the debate.
The controversy flared up again in 1982 when the Ministry
of Education censored any mention of the Nanjing Massacre in a school textbook. The reason given by the ministry was that
Nanking Massacre was not a well-established historical event. The author of the textbook, Professor Saburō Ienaga, sued
the Ministry of Education in an extended case that was eventually won by the plaintiff in 1997. Also, a number of cabinet ministers as well as some
high ranking politicians made comments denying atrocities committed by the Japanese army in the World War II and were subsequently
forced to resign after protests from China and South Korea. In response, a number of journalists and historians formed the
Nankin Jiken Chōsakai (Nanking Incident Research Group). The research group collected large quantities of archival materials
as well as testimonies from both Chinese and Japanese sources. A competing group with a revisionist bent was headed by Tanaka Shōmei. However, the debate
ended in the collapse of the revisionist side. In his presentation of the denial argument, Tanaka Shōmei presented the
diary of Major Ishine Matsui. It was revealed that Tanaka altered, deleted or even added his own writing in nearly 600 places
to support contention that the Nanking Massacre is false (that it had never occurred). The falsification was discovered by
historian Yuriaki Itakura. Itakura himself was much closer to the revisionist side, but he severely criticized Tanaka's distortion.
Moreover, Japanese imperial army records, as well as a number of personal records by Japanese soldiers reporting the killings
and rapes, made denial impossible in the public forum. One Japanese veteran group for army officers attempted to disprove
the massacre by conducting a survey among the members who participated in Nanking campaign but their attempt ended up as proving
the existence of the massacre beyond doubt.
On the Chinese side, the public perception of Nanjing Massacre
and Japan itself has made a U-turn after Jiang Zemin became the head of state. Historically, Chinese nationalism and the legitimacy
of the communist government are defined by their struggle against the Japanese aggressor and their eventual victory. In Japan,
as far as Japanese academics are concerned, the controversy over the existence of atrocities ended in the early '90s. Both
sides accept that killing did occur; however, disagreement exists over the actual numbers, which depends on the standard of
inclusion of archival or anecdotal evidence, definition of the period of the massacre, as well as geographical coverage.
The controversy was related outside Japan by some journalists
who followed the domestic debate but interest in the West remained muted until the publication of The Rape of Nanking by Iris Chang in 1997. Even though the standard of historical research was
described as highly flawed by both sides of the debate in Japan, it did bring the controversy to a much wider western audience.
Currently, no notable group, including right-wing nationalists,
deny the existence of the killings and the debate has shifted mainly to the death toll, to the extent of rapes and civilian
killings (as opposed to POW and suspected guerrillas) and to the appropriateness of using the word "massacre". Apologists
insist that burial records from the Red Swastika Society and the Chung Shan Tang (Tsung Shan Tong) were never cross examined
at the Tokyo and Nanking trials, arguing therefore that the estimates derived from these two sets of records should be heavily
discounted. They also admit that personal records of Japanese soldiers do suggest the occurrence of rapes, but insist that
this does not determine the extent of rapes. Moreover, they regard personal testimony from the Chinese side to be propaganda.
They also point out that there are no documented records of the rapes, unlike the burial records that exist and document the
killings, and therefore argue that the assertion of mass rape is unsubstantiated. Apologists further insist that the majority
of those killed were POWs and "suspected guerrillas", which they consider to be legitimate killing, so that the use of descriptive
word "massacre" is inappropriate.
However, within the public the debate still continues. Those
downplaying the massacre have most recently rallied around a group of academic and journalists associated with the Society
for the Creation of New Textbooks. Their views are often shared in publications associated with conservative, right-wing publishers
such as Bungei Shunjū and Sankei Shuppan. In response, two Japanese organizations have taken the lead in
publishing material detailing the massacre and collecting related documents and accounts. The Study Group on the Nanjing Incident,
founded by a group of historians in 1984, has published the most books responding directly to revisionist historians; the
Center for Research and Documentation on Japan's War Responsibility, founded in 1993, has published many materials in its
The Society for the Creation of New Textbooks produced history
textbooks for junior high school and submitted them to the Ministry of Education. The Ministry ordered corrections in 137
places. After the corrections, the book passed the 2001 inspection. This has again caused fury from Korea and China, both
sides demanding reinspection. The book was published and wrongly appeared as a best-seller, because of the systematic distribution
of most of the 750,000 copies by the Society for the Creation of New Textbooks. The 2002 rate of adoption of this textbook
in schools was only 0.039%.
In October 2004, the Japanese manga comic book "Kuni ga Moeru,"
or "The Country is Burning" by Hiroshi Motomiya was suspended from the manga anthology Weekly Young Jump because it "depicted
the Nanjing Atrocities as 'real.'" Certain Japanese politicians and civilians wanted the manga censored or removed because
they claimed that the incident never occurred and there was no proof of it. "Kuni ga Moeru" is a historical fiction about
a Japanese bureaucrat during the Showa Era (1926-1989). The controversy arose when the author copied a photograph from the
time, emphasizing the Japanese uniforms on the soldiers. The photo's authenticity cannot be verified and thus incited cries
that the author distorted the history.
- Askew, David "The International Committee for the Nanking
Safety Zone: An Introduction" Sino-Japanese Studies Vol. 14, April 2002 (Article outlining membership and their reports
of the events that transpired during the massacre)
- Askew, David "The Nanjing Incident: An Examination of the
Civilian Population" Sino-Japanese Studies Vol. 13, March 2001 (Article analyzes a wide variety of figures on the population
of Nanjing before, during, and after the massacre)
- Brook, Timothy, ed. Documents on the Rape of Nanjing,
Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1999. ISBN 0472111345 (Does not include the Rabe diaries)
- Chang, Iris, The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II, Foreword by William C. Kirby; Penguin USA (Paper), 1998. ISBN 0140277447
- Hua-ling Hu, American Goddess at the Rape of Nanking: The Courage of Minnie Vautrin, Foreword by Paul Simon; March 2000, ISBN 0809323036
- Fogel, Joshua, ed. The Nanjing Massacre in History and
Historiography, Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000. ISBN 0520220072
- Honda, Katsuichi, Sandness, Karen trans. The Nanjing
Massacre: A Japanese Journalist Confronts Japan's National Shame, London: M.E. Sharpe, 1999. ISBN 0765603357
- Kajimoto, Masato "Mistranslations in Honda Katsuichi's the
Nanjing Massacre" Sino-Japanese Studies, 13. 2 (March 2001) pp.32-44
- Rabe, John, The Good Man of Nanking: The Diaries of John Rabe, Vintage (Paper), 2000. ISBN 0375701974
- Yamamoto, Masahiro, Nanking: Anatomy of an Atrocity,
Praeger Publishers, 2000. ISBN 0275969045
- Tanaka, Masaaki, What Really Happened in Nanking,
Sekai Shuppan, 2000. ISBN 4916079078
- Yoshida, Takeshi "A Japanese Historiography of the Nanjing Massacre (http://www.columbia.edu/cu/ccba/cear/issues/fall99/text-only/yoshida.htm)",
Columbia East Asian Review, Fall 1999. (A much longer and more detailed version of this article is in above in the
work edited by Joshua Fogel)
- Takemoto, Tadao and Ohara, Yasuo The Alleged "Nanking
Massacre": Japan's rebuttal to China's forged claims, Meisei-sha, Inc., 2000, (Tokyo Trial revisited) ISBN 4944219059
- Young, Shi; Yin, James. "Rape of Nanking: Undeniable history
in photographs" Chicago: Innovative Publishing Group, 1997.